On November 11, 1675, Leibnitz demonstrated integral calculus. He was trying to find the area “under” a function. Doing so was quite a feat, opening the door for many advanced mathematical proofs and concepts, but sadly was drowned at the time in the feud between Newton and Leibnitz.
Newton, while a mathematical and physical genius, was petty and vicious towards competition. He tried to erase or diminish any accomplishments not Made-By-Newton™ in his very broad fields of expertise.
In modern calculus, we use the notation for integrals invented by the German mathematician, rather than the Englishman’s.
On November 10, 1983, Microsoft unveils Windows 1.0. It only does what it says on the tin, and provides windows. Computer Wars Historians still rage today debating the significance of the event, given that Microsoft showed it ahead of the unveiling of the Macintosh (which they collaborated on), but only shipped it 2 years later.
Pundits of the time hated Windows 1.0, which underdelivered on the initial promises.
On november 7, 1728, James Cook, British sailor of note, is born. He is most known for “discovering” Tahiti and Australia (natives can’t discover anything), but he was a huge support to the sciences, taking botanists, astronomers and other pioneers to remote areas, even when the “usefulness” of these experiments wasn’t obvious.
On November 4, 1922, the entrance to the tomb of Tutankhamen (now mostly known as King Tut, hence the punish nature of the title) is discovered by Howard Carter and his men. Funnily enough, his only major find in his career is the major find of that era in the Valley of Kings.
Our Man Tut was born around -1341, and died at the age of 18. During that short life, the son of Akhenaten actually ruled for 9 years. 3000 years later, he is more famous in our world than most of the other Pharaohs in his dynasty.
On October 30, 1987, NEC wins the “next gen” console race to 16 bits by releasing the “PC Engine”. Much less famous than the SNES from Nintendo or the Megadrive/Genesis from Sega, , it was nonetheless the first – and sold well.
Conversely, it remained a highly popular gaming system in Japan, games being released on it as late as 1999. At the time, the most popular console was probably the PlayStation (PS1), but the PlayStation 2 was to be released only a handful of months later, in 2000.
On Oct 27, 1961, Apollo-1 is successfully fueled and launched. It reaches an apex of nearly 137km, before coming down and splashing in the ocean.
For reference, planes can’t fly higher than 25km because there isn’t enough air to support flight, a common definition of “being in space” starts at 100km.
130km is the distance between New York and Philadelphia, Paris and Reims are 140km apart, and there are 120km between Sydney and Newcastle.