On November 9, 1867, the Tokugawa Shogunate (warlord type of ruler) hands the power back to the Emperor of Japan, who is keen on modernizing the country.
This starts the Meiji Restoration, which transforms very rapidly the still feudal/samurai outlook on things to a more european approach.
On November 8, 1923, in Munich, Adolf Hitler tried to seize power through a coup with the early Nazis. The attempt failed, and the future Fürher ended up in jail. Ironically, the trial and the time in the box (where he dictated the first volume of Mein Kampf) made his ideologies known and discussed, spreading support for the Nazis in general.
On November 6, 1792, the newly-formed First French Republic fights at Jemappes. Ostensibly to avenge the French King and Queen, more probably to annex some ground, the eastern neighbors thought it’d be easy to defeat a bunch of peasants with no actual military experience.
Turned out, numbers, meat cleavers, forks and shovels work rather well on the battlefield, espcially when the combattants are “inexperienced” and don’t wait for the lines to be properly formed and the verbal jousting to be over.
On November 5, 1790, Mihšihkinaahkwa (The Little Turtle), a Miami native-american chief, led a fight to contain the northern expansion of the newly independent american nation. He managed to repel assaults and to convince more and more tribe chieftains to join him.
After a successful campaign, peace was settled and he has been honored as a worthy opponent by the US ever since. It’s one of the idiosyncrasies of the new settlers that the Miami tribe has no land left today.
On November 3, 1793, Olympe de Gouges is guillotined on what is today the Place de la Concorde, in Paris. The exact reason of the execution would take a while to explain, but the main thrust of it is that she disagreed with the way France was governed post-Revolution, and was advocating a return to one of the classical forms: republic, federation, or constitutional monarchy.
She is considered today to be one of the most modern feminists of that era: she was politically engaged and quite vocal about total and absolute equality between men and women, at a time when it was unthinkable (and would remain so for a few more centuries, sadly). She was also a staunch anti-slavery proponent.
On November 2, 1914, the Russian Empire declares war on the Ottoman Empire. It was brewing for a while, because of the various issue with navigating in the Mediterranean Sea. The Ottomans, at this point, are considered to be the weakest of the Central Powers alliance, and that lapse of judgement contributed to making WW1 the horrendous protracted massacre that it was.